CONTENT

Editorial

1. Michael A Brown:
Construction Management: The management of the development, conservation and improvement of the built environment

2. Olumide Afolarin Adenuga:
Professionals In The Built Environment And The Incidence Of Building Collapse In Nigeria

3. A. A. Raheem, B. S. Olasunkanmi, C. S. Folorunso:
Saw Dust Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete

4. Hanh Tran, David G. Carmichael:
Contractor’s Financial Estimation based on Owner Payment Histories

5. Natalya Sergeeva, Milan Radosavljevic:
Creative participation in construction firms: bridging creativity and innovation

6. Swapan S. Saha, Vivian W. Y. Tam:
Insulated Wall Systems to Tackle Global Warming

7. Helga Csordas:
Scheduling in Networks with Time Dependent Arc Lengths Based on a Loop Finder Algorithm

8. Anita Ceric:
Communication risk in contruction projects: Application of principal-agent theory

9. Giorgio Locatelli, Mauro Mancini:
How EPC firms can enter the nuclear renaissance

10. Konrad Spang, Stefan Riemann, Helmut Kontges:
Cooperative Mechanism for Solving Conflicts in Infrastructure Projects

1. Michael a Brown:


Construction Management: The management of the development, conservation and improvement of the built environment

Abstract:
The semantics of professionalism is a literal minefield. UK Professions are established for the public benefit, in that they offer assurance of the skills and competences expected of a professional person, together with the application of ethical standards to their profession or trade. Yet the world of the professions is changing rapidly with new competences required to practice emerging technologies and new expectations of behaviours. The words we use do not keep pace.

                                                                                                                                                               

2. Olumide Afolarin Adenuga:


Professionals In The Built Environment And The Incidence Of Building Collapse In Nigeria

Abstract:
The failure of buildings is a national problem, which not only results in waste of materials, financial and human resources but, sometimes in loss of lives and properties. This occurrence has been a challenge to the professionals in the industry and as such necessitates the need for this study. The study examines the involvement of professionals in the incidence of buildings collapse in Lagos state. The research also identified and assessed the causes of building failure, evaluated the effects of such failures on construction professionals, the client, and the nation as a whole. In achieving these objectives, the study adopts a survey technique with a total of 65 questionnaires mainly for the professionals in the industry in which 50 were retrieved and used for the analysis. Random sampling technique was used in the selecting of the sample size. Data collected were analyzed using the frequency table, mean item score, one sample t test and paired sample t test. The study revealed that the building industry is full of quacks and inexperienced contractors. Their involvement in building construction has led to a lot of collapse in the past and at present. Poor management and leadership on the part of the Site Engineers and Builders have also contributed to many buildings failures. The analysis reveals that there are significant differences in the causes of building failure. The failures of buildings also have significant effects on the stakeholders. The study recommends that for all construction works being undertaken, such should be designed and supervised by qualified and registered Engineers and Builders. Also code of ethical conduct of building profession should be strongly enforced by the bodies concerned as to prevent ethical abuse by the professionals in the industry.

Keywords: Professionals, Built Environment, Collapse, Building Failure, Nigeria

                                                                                                                                                                

3. A. A. Raheem, B. S. Olasunkanmi, C. S. Folorunso:
 


Saw Dust Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete

Abstract:
This research considered the use of saw dust ash as a pozzolan in the production of concrete. the study investigated the physical properties and chemical composition of saw dust ash (SDA) as well as the workability, and compressive strength properties of the concrete produced by replacing 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of ordinary Portland cement with SDA. Slump and compacting factor tests were carried out on the fresh concrete and compressive strength test on hardened concrete. The concrete cubes were tested at the ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The results showed that SDA is a good pozzolan with combined SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 of 73.07%. The slump and compacting factor decreased as the SDA content increased indicating that concrete becomes less workable as the SDA content increased. The compressive strength decreased with increasing SDA replacement. The compressive strength of concrete with SDA was lower at early stages but improves significantly up to 90 days. An optimum value of 23.26N/mm2 at 90 days was obtained for concrete with 5% SDA replacement. It was concluded that 5% SDA substitution is adequate to enjoy maximum benefit of strength gain.

Keywords: Saw dust ash, Pozzolan, Workability,
Compressive strength

                                                                                                                                                                

4. Hanh Tran, David G. Carmichael:


Contractor’s Financial Estimation
based on Owner Payment Histories

Abstract:
A contractor’s financial viability is affected by late and incomplete payments from the owner. Late and incomplete payments lead to cash flow uncertainty, additional bank interest, and delays in paying creditors such as suppliers and subcontractors, and may lead to decreased project
performance, and possible additional time and cost due to disputes. The paper presents a method for cash flow and present value analysis under uncertainty based on an owner’s payment history or estimated payment characteristics. The paper generalises existing modelling of uncertainty associated with late and incomplete owner payments to a range of claim types by the contractor, and different owner types. Aging contractor claims are analysed for claims submitted on a regular basis for amounts which may vary depending on project phasing. For each of the pre-identified typical owner payment practices, the estimated paid proportions of claims and the steady state distribution of payments in different age categories are established. A present value analysis assesses project viability from the contractor’s viewpoint. Actual project data are used to confirm the validity of the method. The intent of the paper is to assist contractors establish suitable allowances in their tender pricing, to choose a suitable claim/payment schedule and/or to adopt suitable administration practices to optimise cash flow. The paper gives a summary approach for contractors, providing them with a practical tool in cash flow planning, control and risk management.

Keywords: Cash flow, Markov chains, contractor payment, owner classification

                                                                                                                                                                

5. Natalya Sergeeva, Milan Radosavljevic:


Creative participation in construction firms: bridging creativity and innovation

Abstract:
An intricate evolution of mainstream theories follows the growing need to explain employees’ commitment and engagement. Our understanding of these work-related phenomena and behaviour has improved but creativity and innovation as desired indicators are still often treated as coexisting constructs with very little attention given to a state of willingness of an individual to even consider contributing ideas. In this research we investigate the influence of knowledge and understanding, perceived radicality, personality dimensions, and favouring of ideas on employee willingness to creatively participate in order to trace its existence in propagation of ideas. A total of 76 construction and non-construction professionals participated in between-subject quasi-experiments. We also proposed IPO-based radicality of ideas construct from the viewpoint
of employees involved in the processes of transformation. The research findings show that experts with deep understanding of the work are more likely to contribute highly radical ideas to decision-makers than less knowledgeable employees. Furthermore, personal factors that impact employee willingness to creatively participate have been valued higher than organisational factors. Personality dimensions by The Big-Five Inventory have shown no effect on willingness to contribute ideas, while favouring of ideas showed a significant effect. In general, the findings show similarities with some studies of consumer willingness to participate in co-creation processes and thus indicate that firms may be studied as dynamic internal markets of ideas.

Keywords: creative participation, ideas, personality, radicality, creativity, innovation creative participation, ideas, personality, radicality, creativity, innovation

                                                                                                                                                                

6. Swapan S. Saha, Vivian W. Y. Tam:


Insulated Wall Systems to Tackle Global Warming

Abstract:
Brief introduction to the problem: the growing awareness of climate change and its link to carbon dioxide emissions have caused concerns in the community. A substantial amount of carbon dioxide emitted is due to the energy consumed by residential households. Heating/cooling of a residential house consumes a large proportion of the total household energy.
Purpose: This paper explores the concept by comparing thermal efficiency of the four most common external wall structures, with varying amounts of insulation added in the context of Sydney, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Cost and thermal analysis for each wall type are calculated. Life cycle cost saving and payback period are then evaluated. Findings: It is found that up to 95.7% cost saving can be achieved in heating/cooling in comparing the use of insulated wall systems and air film. Cement sheet wall system is found to be the most cost effective wall system for insulation with minimum 50% of cost saving can be achieved. The results also identify substantial energy cost required for heating/cooling a house without insulation when the climate gets extreme. The payback period for the installation of the insulated wall systems can be achieved in 4.98 years for normal climate condition or 2.58 years for extreme climate condition. Practical implications: The community is currently at great risk of being unable to deal with climate change issue as not clear the effective use of insulated wall systems. This paper can help provide insight and suggestions for residential households in tackling global warming issue.

Keywords: Global warming, climate change, insulated wall system, residential, housing, Australia

                                                                                                                                                                

7. Helga Csordas:


Scheduling in Networks with Time Dependent Arc Lengths Based on a Loop Finder Algorithm

Abstract:
Network models are often applied in project scheduling. Here a longest path problem has to be solved to get the project duration. There are many generalizations in this theme. One of these is applying time dependent process durations. This potential is very important because this is the key to use calendars in schedules. An other one is applying maximal constraints which result loops in the schedule. If these two potentials are allowed together, the prefix of length of the loops can change according the start time. An algorithm has been already presented for this problem. This study is an opportunity to accelerate it.

Keywords: project scheduling, time dependent activity, loop, algorithm

                                                                                                                                                                

8. Anita Ceric:


Communication risk in contruction Projects: Application of principal-agent theory

Abstract:
The impact of a multiple principal-agent problem on communication risk in construction projects is addressed. the focus here is on communication issues between the project owner, the contractor, and their project managers, as well as between the two project managers working for them. These are the key four parties in any construction project. In construction projects, the principal-agent problem is even more pronounced than is usually the case because of their short-term employment relationship. This problem is characterized by three issues concerning the relationship between the principal and the agent: adverse selection, moral hazard, and hold-up. Asymmetric information is common to all three. An exploratory survey was conducted in order to establish an understanding of the relative importance of the relationships between the key project parties in terms of the above communication risks. The respondents were project managers with considerable experience in the construction field. They agree that the main relationship in a construction project before the contract is signed is that between the project owner and contractor. However, they suggest that the main relationship after the contract is signed is that between the project owner’s and contractor’s project managers, both of whom are agents, which points to new and promising areas for further research.

Keywords: principal-agent theory, asymmetric information, communication risk, construction projects, project management

                                                                                                                                                                

9. Giorgio Locatelli, Mauro Mancini:


How EPC firms can enter the nuclear renaissance

Abstract:
The so called “nuclear renaissance” is creating a millionaire market for new nuclear reactors. Few firms have the capabilities to work in this complex and highly demanding market, whereas many other are investigating the option to enter. Quite surprising the international scientific literature provides information regarding the high-level governmental aspects of nuclear power programs in different countries while the analysis at firm level is almost inexistent. Moreover the usual business models for the manufacturing industry are not suitable since the nuclear market is very peculiar. In particular is unclear how an EPC (Engineering Procurement and Construction) company can enter in it. This paper deals with this question investigating how an EPC firms or general contractor can enter in the nuclear market. The case study methodology has been widely used to understand the time, cost, enabling factors and barriers to enter in the nuclear business in the most important roles: Architect/Engineering, NSSS supplier, TG supplier, Construction. The results show that there are strong similarities among companies acting as main contractor in the same field; therefore it is possible to generalize a large set of meaningful lessons learned.

Keywords: Economics, Supplier, EPC companies, Project delivery

                                                                                                                                                                

10. Konrad Spang, Stefan Riemann, Helmut Kontges:


Cooperative Mechanism for Solving Conflicts in Infrastructure Projects

Abstract:
risks and uncertainties are quite common in projects in general and in large and complex infrastructure projects in special. Sometimes these risks can cause conflicts and disputes, which cannot be solved between the contracting parties. A lawsuit often would be the only way to solve the conflict. To avoid going to court, several variations for conflict solution have been established. After an introduction into the topic of these mechanisms, a research project will be presented. In this project the adjudication model is incorporated into a recent guideline for partnering in the construction of civil infrastructure projects. The findings of the testing phase of this guideline in real construction project are all in all very good. The solutions came faster and the costs were lower than in a court process. Some disputes were even solved without an adjudication process, but with the help of the adjudicators.

Keywords: Alternative dispute resolution; arbitration; adjudication; partnering; infrastructure projects