CONTENT

Editorial

1. Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Tatjana Vilutienė:
Operations research in areas of civil engineering and sustainable development: EURO working group activities

2. Naďa Antošová:
Rules for the effective maintenance of buildings and Maintenance of etics system with biocorrosion

3. Ivana Šandrk Nukić, Nenad Šuvak:
Impact of human resources management on business result of Croatian construction companies

4. Dosumu Oluwaseun Sunday, Adenuga Olumide Afolarin:
Causes, effects and remedies of errors in Nigerian construction documents

5. Mária Kozlovská, Marcela Spišáková:
Contruction waste generation across construction project life-cycle

6. Simo Suđić, Goran Ćirović, Snežana Mitrović:
Risk analysis and management on Public Private Partnership Projects (PPP) in Serbia

7. João Pedro Júlio, Anabela Paiva, Caroline Dominguez:
Overall aspects for the evaluation of Portuguese dwellings’ quality and sustainability

8. Renata Kozik, Edyta Plebankiewicz:
Bid documentation in public procurement in Poland

9. Ibrahim Mahamid:
Frequency of time overrun causes in road construction in Palestine: Contractors’ View

10. Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman:
Challenges of mega construction projects in developing countries

11. Ameh Oko John, Daniel Emmanuel Itodo:
Professionals’ views of material wastage on construction sites and cost overruns

1. Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Tatjana Vilutienė:
 


Operations research in areas of civil engineering and sustainable development: EURO working group activities

Abstract:
the viewpoint presented in this paper promotes the collaboration, partnering and exchange of best practice knowledge as key factors to reap benefits for construction excellence and sustainability. The approach uses the example of EURO Working Group “OR in Sustainable Development and Civil Engineering” activities. EURO is the 'Association of European Operational Research Societies' within IFORS, the 'International Federation of Operational Research Societies'

                                                                                                                                                              

2. Naďa Antošová:


Rules for the effective maintenance of buildings and maintenance of etics system with biocorrosion

Abstract:
The External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS) has a long-term problem without a cause that has yet been determined – colonisation of the surface by microorganisms. The technical performance and estimated service life of the ETICS system can be ensured through the documentation about its use, maintenance and repairs. The regional legislation does not require the provision of documents about the use of buildings or building parts. The research was therefore focused on suggesting a conceptual manual for the use of the ETICS system and its implementation in practice. The suggested monitoring and management of decontamination technology for the ETICS system allows for an external wall’s resistance to microorganisms. The generalised results will be the basis for the creation of a user manual for buildings according to regional standards and legislation. The article relies on research on the destruction of microorganisms on external walls with an ETICS system.

Keywords: Maintenance, External Thermal Insulation Composite System, Biocorrosion Facades, Life Cycle

                                                                                                                                                               

3. Ivana Šandrk Nukić, Nenad Šuvak:


Impact of human resources management on business result of Croatian construction companies

Abstract:
It has been widely recognized that activities practiced by human resources management (HRM) significantly influence business performance of any company. However, quantification of that relationship has not been researched enough to provide a tool for practitioners by which they could increase their business result. Therefore additional scientific contribution on the subject would be valuable and that is the very purpose of this paper. Authors of this paper have researched what is the impact of HRM activities in construction industry in Croatia. After an insight into a theoretical background about influence of HRM activities on business performance, this paper presents results from their own study. The research was conducted over actual financial results realised before and during the period of recent economic crisis, from 2007-2010. Data was collected using financial data base Poslovna.hr and the opinion poll conducted in more than 30% of middle-size construction companies in Croatia. Data was analysed using frequency analysis, analysis of correlation coefficients and finally by construction of multiple linear regression models. Results of the research suggest that people working in construction have reached the subsistence level income. Constructed multiple linear regression models indicate that, among other human resources activities, the material motivation activities have the most significant positive impact on business result. Professional selection of candidates, life long learning, supportive organizational culture and other non-material measures remain for the benefit of some future times.

Keywords: Management, Human Resources Management, Construction, Competitiveness, Performance

                                                                                                                                                               

4. Dosumu Oluwaseun Sunday, Adenuga Olumide Afolarin:


Causes, effects and remedies of errors in Nigerian construction documents

Abstract:
Errors entail different meanings and usages depending on how it is conceptualized. The purpose of this paper is to determine the causes, effects and remedies of the errors in Nigerian construction documents. A structured questionnaire was administered on ninety consultants (Builders, architects, engineers and quantity surveyors) obtained from regulatory bodies of each profession. Forty four questionnaires were returned and this gives a response rate of 49%. The findings of the research show that clients are the major stakeholders responsible for the generation of errors in Nigerian construction documents. The causes of the errors are lack of adequate documentation, poor communication, negligence and changes to specifications among others and the effects on construction projects include project abandonment, delays, rework, dissatisfaction by project owners and lack of confidence in project consultants. The suggested solutions include provision of comprehensive information, good communication among project teams, effective and efficient project management, constructability, design review management and adequate financial provision. The study recommends that clients should allow adequate time for the preparation of construction documents and adopt appropriate procurement method. The designers were advised to engage in partnering while preparing construction documents. .

Keywords: Construction, Consultants, Documents, Errors, Nigeria, Project, Stakeholders

                                                                                                                                                               

5. Mária Kozlovská, Marcela Spišáková:


Contruction waste generation across construction project life-cycle

Abstract:
The construction and demolition waste (CDW), which is produced by the construction process, presents 33% of the total waste stream in European Union in year 2010 (Eurostat 2010). A construction and demolition waste is generated during whole life cycle of construction - design phase, realization phase, occupation phase and demolition phase. On the other hand, the sustainable design of construction in the design phase presents possibility for the significantly reduce a volume of generated construction waste. In this phase, we are able to identify and quantify the volume and sort of construction waste. Based on this information, it is possible to determine the possibilities of construction waste disposal and the costs for its treatment. This paper deals with proposal of options to reduce construction and demolition waste in the design phase as well as in the realization phase of constructions. The first part of paper describes possibilities of modern methods of construction use in the design phase of construction. The second part of paper describes the opportunities of cost reduction for the construction ways disposal. There are also analysed the foreign studies focused on the quantification of construction waste generation in the design and realization phase because the waste quantification provides a necessary tool for evaluating the true size of the wastes and hence making the adequate decisions for their minimization and sustainable management. The conclusion of paper involves a proposal of cost prediction for construction waste disposal through the most widely used of Slovak construction-economic software Cenkros Plus.

Keywords: Construction, Life cycle of construction, Construction and demolition waste (CDW), Waste disposal, Quantification of construction and demolition waste, Modern methods of construction (MMC)

                                                                                                                                                               

6. Simo Suđić, Goran Ćirović, Snežana Mitrović:
 


Risk analysis and management on Public Private Partnership Projects (PPP) in Serbia

Abstract:
Infrastructure projects are going through a lot of difficulties, mostly connected with non standard established financing in South Eastern Europe countries. During and after transition period, undeveloped, insufficient but before all obsolete infrastructure in Serbia became a essential problem for further development of main economic resources (transportation, agriculture, mining, tourism etc.). Infrastructure network is necessity for the development of different sectors (energetic, agriculture, industry, commerce etc.). Domestic regulation is not clear in allowing project financing through Public Private Partnership (PPP) model, which is great opportunity for opening new projects and finishing many projects with on hold status. The main problem in decision making and starting financing projects in that model is too many risks on the market, which endanger projects from very beginning, especially in initiation phase so many investors decide to leave projects in very early phases. The analysis of potential risk elements, throughout the processes from bidding to operational infrastructure projects, is one of the most important elements to maximizing profit and functionality, and properly develop country infrastructure, while minimalizing potential difficulties that may arise. Much of the risk of a PPP project comes from the complexity of financing, ss involved in a major infrastructure venture. Main risks, their analyze and management on infrastructure projects are explained in this paper. After risk analyze, risk management tools are presented, together with method of managing risks on PPP projects in Serbia.

Keywords: Public private partnership (PPP) projects, Risk analyze and management, Project financing, infrastructure projects)

                                                                                                                                                               

7. João Pedro Júlio, Anabela Paiva, Caroline Dominguez:


Overall aspects for the evaluation of Portuguese dwellings’ quality and Sustainability

Abstract:
As housing is an essential need, a dwelling should provide an assured quality of life and satisfy the expectations of its users. As a dwelling is a complex system, the construction of which involves the contribution of various specialists, the evaluation of its quality is a elaborated process. In the sequence of previous research on quality dwellings assessment methods, the objective of this paper is to present the proposal of an assessment system for the most important aspects of dwellings’ quality in Portugal which provides stakeholders with a simple and objective form for assessing the quality level of a dwelling to be designed, built, financed, bought or rented. After a thorough analysis of methods used to evaluate residential
building quality in various countries, the most common elements were identified. This list was submitted to critical evaluation by Portuguese construction specialists, resulting in a final selection of evaluation aspects such as: housing operating costs, proximity to basic infrastructures, energy classification and rainwater reuse systems.

Keywords: Assessment method, Residential buildings, Dwelling’s quality, Sustainability, Portugal

                                                                                                                                                               

8. Renata Kozik, Edyta Plebankiewicz:


Bid documentation in public procurement in Poland

Abstract:
Preparation of tender documents is the responsibility of the orderer (contracting authority). The correct description of the subject of the building works and a clear formulation of orderer’s requirements have an impact on the contractor’s decision
to join the proceedings, as well as on the preparation of an offer. Errors in the preparation of tender documents may be the cause of many questions raised by the contractors and, as a consequence, it may become necessary to extend the process.
The article briefly presents the regulations specified in Polish public procurement law relating to the requirements for contractors and the way the subject of the building works is described. Then it focuses on an analysis of questions asked by bidders during the selected procedures. Consideration will be given to the structure of questions and the factors affecting their quantity.

Keywords: Bid documentation, Public procurement, Bidding procedure

                                                                                                                                                               

9. Ibrahim Mahamid:
 


Frequency of time overrun causes in road construction in Palestine: Contractors’ View

Abstract:
Time, cost and quality have their proven importance as the prime measures for project success. However, the history of the construction industry worldwide is full of projects that were completed with significant time and cost overruns. This study is conducted to investigate the occurrence frequency of time overrun causes in road construction projects in the West Bank in Palestine from contractors’ viewpoint through a questionnaire survey. The field survey included 34 contractors. 52 factors affecting time overrun were identified during the research. The survey concluded that the top ten frequent factors are: segmentation of the West Bank and limited movement between areas, political situation, progress payments delay by owner, lack of equipment efficiency, difficulties in financing project by contractor, personal conflicts among labors, poor communication by consultant with other construction parties, conflict between contractor and other parties, award project to lowest bid price, unreasonable project time frame by the owner.

Keywords: Delay, Time overrun, Frequency, Road Construction, Contractors, Palestine

                                                                                                                                                               

10. Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman:
 


Challenges of mega construction projects in developing countries

Abstract:
Mega Construction Projects (MCPs) represent a strategic option towards achieving sustainable development objectives in developing countries. On the one hand, these projects are charaterised with the need for high design knowledge and technical skills; competent human resources and managerial capabilities as well as excessive cost investment. Conversely, developing countries experience shortage of many of these requirements, which obstruct the development of (MCPs). This paper aims to identify, validate, and classify the challenges of delivering (MCPs) in developing countries. Towards achieving this aim, two approaches were employed, namely literature review and case studies, to accomplish four objectives
.• Reviewing the nature and characteristics of developing countries and (MCPs); identifying the challenges of delivering (MCPs) in developing countries and establishing the need for (MCPs) in developing countries.
• Validating the challenges identified from Litearture review through collecting and analysing 36 case studies of (MCPs) in developeding countries. Case studies confirmed many of the identified challenges and added new insights that were not covered in current literature.
• Classifying the identified clalenges into four categories: engineering challenges, human development challenges, managerial and political challenges and sustainability challenges.
• Outlining research conclusions and recommendations useful for delivering successful (MCPs) in developing countries.

Keywords: Mega Construction Projects, Challenges, Sustainable Development, Developing Countries.

                                                                                                                                                               

11. Ameh Oko John, Daniel Emmanuel Itodo:
 


Professionals’ views of material wastage on construction sites and cost overruns

Abstract:
It is believed that building material wastage on construction
sites account for cost overruns and any improvement in building materials management on construction sites has the potential to enhance the construction industry’s performance with cost-saving benefits. The purpose of this study is to identify the most wasteful building material during construction operation. It also sets out to assess the level of material wastage with various subcontracting options, the percentage contribution of material wastage to project cost overrun, identify factors contributing to material waste on building sites and to examine the relationship between subcontracting options, project cost overrun and the level of waste generated from building material. A survey research design was employed. Responses from 56 site based professionals representing 70% of the respondents were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results indicate that the most wasteful building material during construction operation is mortar from plastering/rendering; labour-only subcontracting options have high contribution to material wastage. Furthermore, the study revealed that the average percentage contribution of building material wastage to project cost overrun is between 21-30%; Poor supervision, re-work, and poor material handling were identified as dominant factors that have high contribution to material wastage on sites. Finally, the result also shows that there is a relationship between subcontracting options, cost overrun and waste generated from building material during construction. Measures to reduce material wastage on construction sites were proposed.Improvement in building materials management on construction sites has the potential to enhance the construction industry’s performance with cost-saving benefits. .

Keywords: Material wastage, Cost overruns, Contractual options, Construction, Nigeria.