CONTENT

Editorial

1. Roger D. H. Warburton:
A New Schedule Estimation Technique for Construction Projects

2. Jin Zhu, Ali Mostafavi:
A System-of-Systems Framework for Performance
Assessment in Complex Construction Projects

3.Fred Eldridge Fanning:
Adapting PMBoK Guidance to Public Sector Projects

4. Carol Axten:
Application of Project Management in Ministerial
Security Development Technical Paper

5. Miroslaw J. Skibniewski:
Construction Project Monitoring with Site Photographs and 4D Project Models

6. Loran Walker, William A Moylan:
Ethics in Project Management Research on Values-Based Leadership in Project Driven Arenas

7. Xinyuan Zhu, Qingbin Cui, Hakob Gevorg Avetisyan:
Green Performance Contracting Strategy for Highway Construction Projects

8. Zhang Xiaolu:
Investigation of Factors Restraining the
Implementation of Green Buildings in Mainland China

9. Chi Kwan Fong, Hakob Gevorg Avetisyan Qingbin Cui:
Understanding the Sustainable Outcome of
Project Delivery Methods in the Built Environment

10. Yongjian Ke, Marcus Jefferies, Asheem Shrestha, Xiao-Hua Jin:
Public Private Partnership In China: Where To From Here

1. Roger D. H. Warburton:


A New Schedule Estimation Technique for Construction Projects

Abstract:
Allen studied hundreds of construction projects and developed an accu-rate, practically useful model of their labor profiles. We combine Al-len’s labor profile with standard Earned Value Management (EVM) techniques and derive a simple, practical formula that estimates the fi-nal schedule from early project data. The schedule
estimation formula is exact; it requires no approximations. The estimate is also surprisingly accurate and available early enough in the project for the project manager to be able to take appropriate actions. We use one of Allen’s real-world construction data sets to calibrate and validate our theoreti-cal model. Early estimates of the final schedule are remarkably accu-rate, and available early enough to be used to effect management changes. We also explain why a current schedule estimation method, Earned Schedule (ES), has a poor theoretical foundation
and show that our model is superior to ES in predicting construction schedule delays. The model should provide warning of schedule delays
early enough for project managers to take corrective actions.

Keywords: Schedule estimation, Schedule performance index, Earned schedule, Construction labor profile

                                                                                                                                                                

2. Jin Zhu, Ali Mostafavi:
 


A System-of-Systems Framework for Performance Assessment in Complex Construction Projects

Abstract:
Performance inefficiency is a critical challenge facing the construction industry. Despite the efforts made in the existing body of literature, an integrated theory of performance assessment facilitating a bottom-up understanding of the dynamic behaviors, uncertainties, and interdependencies between the constituents in construction projects is still missing. The traditional paradigm for performance assessment z is mainly based on a reductionism perspective, in which construction projects are identified as monolithic systems. However, complex construction projects are systems-of-systems. Systems-of-systems have unique traits that are different from those of monolithic systems. Failure to investigate construction projects as systems-of-systems has led to theoretical and methodological limitations in the creation of integrated tools and techniques for better assessment of performance in complex construction projects. To address these theoretical
and methodological limitations, a system-of-systems framework is proposed as a theoretical lens and methodological structure toward creation of tools and techniques for integrated performance assessment of complex construction projects. Two principles (i.e., base-level abstraction and multi-level aggregation) are used to develop the proposed framework. The proposed framework facilitates a bottom-up evaluation of the dynamic behaviors, uncertainties, and interdependencies
between the constituents in construction projects. The capabilizties of the proposed framework show its potential in addressing the limitations pertaining to the traditional frameworks for performance assessment. Hence, it can be adopted and tested by researchers to advance the body of knowledge
and create integrated theories of performance assessment in complex construction projects.

Keywords: Construction project, Performance assessment, Systems-Of-Systems, Bottom-Up Approach

                                                                                                                                                                

3.Fred Eldridge Fanning:


Adapting PMBoK Guidance to Public Sector Projects

Abstract:
It is the author’s experience that many employees of the United States Government manage projects without adequate standards or training. Many of these projects fail, which is unfortunate, because the Project Management Institute has developed standards and a body of knowledge to help anyone manage projects successfully. Adapting the Project
Management Institute’s standards to a government organization and conducting training for government project managers based on the Project Management Body of Knowledge leads to increased potential for projects to be managed properly. The author was involved in a government organization where this was done. In this technical paper, the author explains how standards were adapted; training was identified, and projects classified leading to successful project management in that organization. The results were so successful that the author implemented them again in a new organization he was hired to lead.

Keywords: Project Management Body of Knowledge Guide, Scalable, Change Management,
Requirements, Work Breakdown Structure

                                                                                                                                                                

4. Carol Axten:


Application of Project Management in Ministerial Security Development Technical Paper

Abstract:
After the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the U.S. Defense focus turned to fighting terrorism throughout the world. The U.S. entered into a conflict with Afghanistan to remove the Taliban government which supported Osama Bin Laden and insurgent training camps. In 2003, the U.S. expanded the “Global War on Terror” to include Iraq and the removal of Saddam Hussein and purge the country of Al Qaeda insurgents. In both situations, government functions were devastated and needed to be rebuilt. This paper discusses applying a strategic to tactical, multi-dimensional approach to project management to a Ministerial Security Development mission laying a foundational framework with developmental processes. Although this paper focuses on the Ministry of Defense (MoD), the same approach applies to other Security Ministries such as Ministry of Interior and National Department of Security. This paper does not cover the “fight” element of contingency operations. The project management approach utilizes business models adopted by the Pentagon
to establish organization operations. The U.S’s ability to establish effective MoD organizations in these regions is essential to a decreasing Department of Defense (DoD) budget particularly with Sequestration. Self-sufficiency means less manpower by the Coalition Security Assistance Force (CSAF). The lessons of Iraq and Afghanistan have shown that establishing Ministerial Security functional capability cannot be approached as a campaign plan. A project management approach provides the tools for business operations planning and allows for identifying and managing risks in a very uncertain environment.

Keywords: International Ministerial Security Development (MSD), Program Management Office
Structure, Integrated Management Plan, MSD in Iraq and

                                                                                                                                                                

5. Miroslaw J. Skibniewski:


Construction Project Monitoring with Site Photographs and 4D Project Models

Abstract:
Early and accurate measurement of progress is crucial for the success of a project. Early detection of discrepancies and deviation from the as-planned data allow more time for project participants to identify the best solution. Monitoring the construction progress requires the Project Managers to analyze a lot of as-built data. This time-consuming process is prone to error. To overcome this problem, people have started adopting Building Information Models (BIM) for monitoring the construction progress. In this paper, we have discussed how the site photographs, which are readily available at all project sites, can be effectively used for monitoring the progress. The 4D as-planned model is prepared at the beginning of the project. Then, a 3D model is reconstructed from time-lapsed as-built photos. For any given time, the progress can be tracked by comparing the 4D model and the 3D as-built model. The progress
data is extracted by superimposing the reconstructed scene over the 4D as-planned model. The reconstructed model allows the as-built photographs to be geo-registered by the 4D as-planned model. As a result of this comparison, the progress data is then visualized in an AR environment. Progress is visualized in the 4D model using a quadrangle visualization scheme. This type of approach presents a realistic understanding of the construction progress and is a very good communication tool between project participants. We have discussed both interior and exterior construction progress monitoring is this paper.

                                                                                                                                                                

6. Loran Walker, William A Moylan:


Ethics in Project Management Research on Values-Based Leadership in Project Driven Arenas

Abstract:
The paper addresses the values-based leadership skills, values and concepts of ethical project management professionals, and, considers the applicability of this leadership construct to the processes of managing major projects in different industries and applications. The purpose of the research study is to determine the suitability of a values-based leadership approach for leading project teams, with a focus on improving the partnerships within industrial programs. The main research question addressed is:"Can the application of values-based leadership skills, values and concepts improve the processes of project management, especially within project-driven industries?" A follow on to this research question is the hypothesis of: "Values-based leadership skills, values, and concepts are highly applicable to the processes of project management, in particular, in the leading of programs from concept through completion." The
study assesses the eleven leadership values postulated in the criteria for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (2013) as means to establish an ethical rubric within project-driven industries. Additionally, the paper reviews the six core principles of values-based leadership postulated by G.W. Fairholm (1998). The research study uses a quantitative approach (survey) to assess the critical elements of this topic. On previous research performed on this topic, a mixed methods approach was found appropriate to identify the values shared between the leader
and followers (qualitative), review the values-base for the particular application (quantitative), and compare the leader's ethical values with the organization (mixed methods).

                                                                                                                                                                

7. Xinyuan Zhu, Qingbin Cui, Hakob Gevorg Avetisyan:
 


Green Performance Contracting Strategy for Highway Construction Projects

Abstract:
With the growing awareness of sustainability and global
climate change, state highway agencies are taking essential steps to reduce carbon emissions from highway infrastructure on a life cycle basis. While much is known regarding climate change mitigation and adaption strategies during highway operation, very little is understood about how climate change issues should be integrated into highway planning, delivery, and construction processes. This paper presents the current contracting practice for addressing the climate change issues. A Green Performance Contracting (GPC) framework is defined in this paper. Four levels of the GPC strategies are identified and discussed, namely, material related strategies, equipment and energy efficiency related strategies, green life-cycle strategies, and clean energy development strategies. Furthermore, a survey of the GPC practices of U.S. state DOTs is conducted, and strategies addressed by different states aligned with the four levels are also discussed. Finally, a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model is proposed together with the evaluation criteria
to assist state highway agencies in better incorporating green and sustainability into their project delivery processes. The evaluation criteria mainly include attributes of GHG reduction efficiency, financial feasibility, technology readiness, risk and uncertainty, and community and industrial acceptance.

Keywords: Green Performance Contracting, Climate Change, Highway Construction

                                                                                                                                                                

8. Zhang Xiaolu:
 


Investigation of Factors Restraining the
Implementation of Green Buildings in Mainland China

Abstract:
In the fast developing Mainland China, among the huge number of new construction project, green building constitute only a very small portion. This paper tries to figure out the factors that restrain the development of green building in Mainland China by carrying out surveys among construction professionals and university researchers. Fifteen barriers that may affect the development of green building negatively are identified from literature review, and factor analysis of the survey result extracts five independent principle factors behind these barriers: Techniques and Finance, Green Environment, Stakeholder Involvement, Motivation, and Management. The importance of management is especially emphasized by the survey result. Furthermore, a second survey is carried out two years later to monitor the change of importance of the five factors.

Keywords: Green Performance Contracting, Climate Change, Highway Construction

                                                                                                                                                                

9. Chi Kwan Fong, Hakob Gevorg Avetisyan Qingbin Cui::


Understanding the Sustainable Outcome of Project Delivery Methods in the Built Environment

Abstract:
In the design and construction industry, building owners want to identify, control, and mitigate project risks by deciding on how projects will be delivered on time and within budget. Project delivery method is a comprehensive process by which designers, constructors, and various consultants provide services for design and construction to deliver a complete project to the owner (Migliaccio et al., 2008). This research paper discusses the types and impacts of various project delivery methods that affect project outcome. The purpose is to understand how project stakeholders interact within the delivery method for the best outcome. To analyze the effectiveness of project delivery method, two case studies in the public higher education in California are reviewed. Both projects are delivered under the same project delivery method. The project outcomes varied significantly in terms of cost, schedule, scope compliance, quality, and stakeholders’ expectations. These outcome variances in the case studies demonstrate the necessity to understand the benefits of strategic alignment of process execution with the culture of integrative team to produce project sustainable outcome in the built environment. Applying an integrated project delivery method is not a substitute for a high performance team. The interdisciplinary interaction and balancing project constraints (cost, time, and scope) with the integrative nature of 3 core areas (Process, People, and System) will contribute to project success. A project sustainable outcome has positive benefits and long term impacts on the society, economy, and the environment.

Keywords: Project delivery method; Project outcome; Process execution; Project sustainable outcome; Built environment; process, people, and system

                                                                                                                                                               

10. Yongjian Ke, Marcus Jefferies, Asheem Shrestha, Xiao-Hua Jin:


Public Private Partnership In China: Where To From Here

Abstract:
The Chinese government has shown an active attitude in
encouraging and supporting the participation of private investors in the provision of public infrastructure and services. There is a huge investment opportunity for Public Private Partnership (PPP) in China. However, China has immature regulatory and institutional PPP frameworks. This paper hence aims to review the application of PPP in China and consequently draw lessons for future references. It was found that China has a wealth of experience with PPP under the strong support of central and subnational governments. Given the tremendous economic growth and immense demand for infrastructure, China will continue to have a massive demand for future PPP projects. This paper is important as its contribution is to summarize the application of PPP in China in terms of opportunities, current usage and future trends.

Keywords: Public Private Partnership, Infrastructure Development, China